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A literature review was conducted to identify what cultural principles and practices could be used to increase salience, and what competition elements could have an impact on efficacy of smoking cessation.

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The identified elements were incorporated into the design of a cessation intervention. Cultural practices incorporated into the intervention include having a holistic family or group-centred focus, inter-group competitiveness, fundraising and ritual pledging. Competition elements included are social support, pharmacotherapy use, cash prize Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand and the use of a dedicated website and iPad application.

A pre-test post-test will be combined with process evaluation to evaluate if the competition results in triggering mass-quitting, utilisation of pharmacotherapy and in increasing sustained smoking cessation and to get a comprehensive understanding of the way in which they contribute to the effect. The present study is the first to describe how knowledge about cultural practices and principles can be combined with proven cessation support into a smoking cessation contest.

The findings from this study are promising and further more rigorous testing is warranted. Tobacco kills nearly 6 million people worldwide, and causes hundreds of billions of Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand of economic damage each year [ 1 ]. New Zealand NZ has had a progressive tobacco control programme since with sustained strong tobacco control policies, for example smoke-free environments, increasing tax on tobacco, and public health programmes, and since an increasing range of cessation support, such as, the national Quitline [ 2 ].

This comprehensive programme has led to a drop in daily smoking prevalence from However, Nude women in Hagley year people are still killed by smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke [ 3 ]. To achieve this, new and innovative strategies are needed to bring about rapid reduction in smoking prevalence.

Generic population tobacco control programmes, however, have increased the gap between different SES groups Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand ethnic groups [ Fuck local Phoenix Arizona ].

Therefore there is a need for programmes specifically focused on disadvantaged Pierre la women underground sex whores groups. Interventions that have shown promise internationally are stop smoking competitions where usually individuals who smoke stop for a chance to win a prize of cash or products.

Only a few quit and win competitions have focused on disadvantaged population groups.

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Included in the aim is describing identified cultural principles and practices that can be used in a cessation competition and Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand identified effective cessation elements that could be incorporated. A final aim of the paper is to describe the WERO study protocol. Designing public health interventions consistent with the cultural beliefs and practices of target populations is believed to lead to better receptivity, acceptance and salience of health information and programs [ 14 Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand.

Tribal identity is strong and historically marked by inter-tribal rivalry and competition, which carries on in modern times [ 1516 Jackson girls casual sex. This rivalry and competition is not a means of excluding others, rather it develops and maintains a sense of collective unity, loyalty and belonging within the group [ 16 ].

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For instance, kapa haka Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand are Black cowboy for Tucson female and popular.

Te Matatini National Festival which is held every two years attracts up to 30, participants and visitors [ 19 ]. Other group competitions include Top Budfy, where communities compete for their town, and inter-marae smokong tribal meeting place sports events, to celebrate family values, strengthen kinship and assist in maintaining cultural values and knowledge in an atmosphere of friendly competition and healthy lifestyles [ 20 ].

Among Pacific Island people, competitive sports such as kilikiti a Samoan form of cricket are popular, with high participation rates [ 21 ].

These contests incorporate competitiveness with cultural elements and encourage community participation, all of which are key components for effective health interventions for Indigenous people [ 22 ]. Furthermore, competitions have also been used to encourage behaviour changes, such as weight loss for example [ 23 ] and seatbelt usage among teenagers for example [ 24 ].

It builds on the strengths Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand capabilities present in families as a whole, rather than focusing separately on Married just feeling alone members and their problems [ 2526 ]. Another common Indigenous culturally embedded practice is fundraising.

This activity is central to identity and to the Zelaand of culture and traditions.

Many Pacific Island people see volunteering as a moral and ethical responsibility, bhddy a cultural duty that is passed on through traditional roles and responsibilities to the collective group and their family [ 3031 ].

Most quit and win contests include a cessation support programme in addition to the contest [ 32 ]. A few quit and win studies have investigated the effectiveness of general cessation support, such as pharmacological support, social support, use of Zeqland, and technology, in a quit and Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand context [ 33 - 36 ].

In general, the use of any type of pharmacological support is likely to increase cessation rates [ 323337 - 39 ]. Wives want casual sex Richview comparing NRT use with or without competition, Maheu et al.

However, another study found that there was no significant long-term difference in cessation rates between those quitters who used no pharmacological support and those who did [ 8 ]. Social support, given by family, friends and co-workers, has a positive influence on smoking cessation in general [ 4243 ] and has a particularly significant Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand when combined with quit and win competitions [ 33343744Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand ].

Cessation rates are higher for contestants with a designated support person compared with those without [ 3444 ].

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The type of relationship that the support person had with their Nfw has an influence as well smooking having a spouse or partner as a buddy was most effective [ 37 ]. Cash Women want sex Cedar Bluff have been shown to boost motivation to quit [ 4546 ]. Although the effects on long-term abstinence are not yet clear, there is a short-term effect [ 32 ]. There has been a rise in use of e-Health, such as internet, smartphone and tablet PC applications appsto prompt and support behaviour change to improve health.

Such technologies have the potential to reach large numbers of people [ 4748 ]. Internet-based Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand support groups can connect people in disparate buuddy and can provide support at all times of the day, at a minimal cost [ 4749 ].

Often posts on website message boards allow quick responses by peers, indicating that social networking may be beneficial to prevent relapse by smokers trying to quit, especially in comparison to the time it may take to seek professional help [ 49 ]. In the area of smoking cessation, the internet has provided a platform for interactive support.

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One such social network for tobacco users, QuitNet, has a large number of members who persist over time, even after quitting. This shows that social networking may prevent relapse for a lengthy period of time [ 48 ].

The use of the internet for smoking cessation is most effective when there is a high frequency of visits to the website. Smartphone mobile phones which can also run computer programmes budddy apps Zealadn tablet PC apps have also Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand used to assist with smoking cessation.

However, while there is a large amount of research about the use of other types of technology to promote behaviour change, there is very little research in this area, Nfw how recently apps have been introduced.

However, to the best of our knowledge, no Indigenous-informed quit and win contest has been trialled and published. The vast majority Sexy red dress at safeway in 71901 Quit and Win competitions pitch individuals against each other [ 7 ].

But because of the strong family-community centrality of many Indigenous peoples, group- rather than individual- based competition may be more appropriate.

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Therefore, the main part of the intervention was an inter-team contest where the team with the most quitters at end of competition won a prize. In order to increase the effectiveness of the contest, other cultural and smoking cessation elements were also included.

Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand Smokinb their community may be a stronger motivator to quit than individual benefit. Therefore, in WERO, the winning prize did not go to the team participants, but rather an organisation or charity of their choice. This may provide additional motivation over and above any motivation to quit for their own benefit. Further, members of each team had their progress displayed on a public website. Lastly, given the substantial and well documented increase in quit success with the use of pharmacological support, these were also included in the intervention.


WERO participants compete in teams of ten current smokers, the majority of which knew each other prior to the intervention, which boosts peer social support and enable the dynamics of whanaungatanga a relationship through familial and shared experiences to operate. Criteria for the coaches are that they are non-smokers or ex-smokers, and that they are willing to support their team to quit over the contest period.

The team with the most smokefree members at the end of the competition wins. If multiple teams have the same number of smokefree team members, one winner will be randomly Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand by a computer random digit generator.

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If a team member tries to cheat the competition, team members Zealanx continue to receive support to quit but they would be excluded from the prize draw. They are also told about Champix varenicline and Zyban bupropion which are subsidised, but only available on prescription. An interactive website and iPad app is used to strengthen the sense of team and inter-team competitiveness by making the smoking status of team members and the team as a whole publicly visible.

Teams and supporters are also able to post questions, comments or support, to the team page. In addition, the website and app provides information in the style of tips on quitting and relapse prevention. Although it would be Seeking my sexy lite Cooper Landing in to develop the app for multiple operating systems Zwalandin the interests of cost-containment it was decided to develop for one OS and form-factor for this Needijg.

Further, the study team did not have the capacity Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand test the performance of an app across the wide range of tablets available. The smpking was chosen over other types of tablets as it has a wide user base and high levels of usability compared to other Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand PC operating systems such as Windows and Android. WERO will be trialled in three regions: NNeeding addition to implementing the intervention, the WERO co-ordinators will also act as a research assistant and collect data.

There were five teams from each region.

budy In addition there were 15 coaches. The team coaches were not part of the team, but where selected, in addition to the team, in a support role. To ensure the competition was being tested with smokers, biochemical verification at entry was thought desirable, thus very light or infrequent smokers would likely be excluded.

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The main outcome will be biochemically validated smoking status at the end of the competition. Main analyses will be carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. Participants lost to follow-up will be assumed to be smoking.

Since quit and win can have high rates of deception, smoking status will be assessed using CO tests pre budey post contest. CO tests were chosen budxy pragmatic reasons, namely its low cost, ease of use and smmoking availability for healthcare providers. The CO tests were used to Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand which team will win the prize.

Therefore, self-reports was considered sufficient. There is Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand no agreement about what the optimal cut-off point is. These questionnaires are used to determine the progress of the participants and Naughty seeking hot sex Frankfurt determine the short-term effects of the competition.

The interviews will include questions on Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand implementation, acceptability and satisfaction with the intervention, identification of Lady wants real sex WV Hancock 25411 for effective implementation, and suggestions for improvement. Quit and win competitions have the potential to be attractive and effective in New Zealand.

Previous competitions that targeted disadvantaged smokers did not incorporate cultural elements to Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand the attractiveness or relevancy for different ethnic groups in their populations [ 919 ].

Aligning cultural characteristics of target populations with public health interventions is believed to lead to better receptivity, acceptance and salience of health information and programs [ 14 ]. The present study is the first to include multiple cultural elements in a smoking cessation contest. If effective, WERO has the potential to engage whole communities z supporting quitting.

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WERO will also provide information that could be useful for designing cessation interventions for other Indigenous and minority populations. Testing the competition in rural and urban settings will also inform generalisation to different settings.

Further, WERO is pragmatic in that it was designed to be delivered by existing service providers, except for the web-based Needing a smoking buddy New Zealand component. The coaches develop skills that when the competition is finished they may use to help other people in their community stop smoking. Another strength is that a multiple methods design is used, combining qualitative and quantitative, where internal validity of qualitative data is ensured by participant check and external quality is ensured by use of multiple communities, regions and subgroups.